Animals – 4

ANIMAL RIGHTS – PART 2

Is “Animal Rights” a Biblical Concern?

SYNOPSIS

During the past forty years, radical animal rights activists have elevated the value of animals to the moral equivalency of humans. They uncompromisingly insist that medical research on live animals, factory farming, and other practices that cause animals intense suffering and death should be legally forbidden. Christians, on the other hand, generally agree that God created animals primarily for human consumption, commercial benefits, and entertainment. As such, they believe humans are free to use animals in practically any manner we choose with little or no concern for their welfare. While the ranks of radical animal rights activists escalate, the church remains largely indifferent (or ignorant of) the pain and suffering of both wild and domesticated animals. Is the general Christian position God- honoring, or is the modern animal rights movement more on track with biblical revelation? Is promoting animal rights a legitimate and just cause? The Bible answers these questions. It reveals that God enjoys and watches over the animals He created, and they have value to Him independent of their benefits to humanity. Furthermore, the Bible reveals that God has instructed the human race to be His caretakers over nonhuman life, and it provides ethical guidelines for how to achieve this.

For most of its history the Christian tradition has not thought that God cares much—if at all—for other creatures. The result is unsurprising: Christians have not cared much either….But how likely is it that a God who creates millions, if not billions, of species only cares for one of them.1

The above quote, by well-known Christian animal rights advocate Professor Andrew Linzey, reminds me of a comment I heard on a nationally broadcasted radio talk show. The popular host, a person with special knowledge of the Old Testament, asserted that there would be no reason for animals to exist unless God created people. At one level, I suppose he’s correct. The Bible does say that God had the human race in mind when He created the Earth (Ps. 115:16). But does it follow that the only reason God created animal life is to serve humanity? If so, why did He create so many millions of animals that contribute nothing to human welfare? And why did God create so many animals that He knew would become a nuisance, or even a danger, to the human race?

The fact is that nowhere in the Bible does it say that God created animals solely for human consumption and commercial benefits, or that we can do what we wish with animals without any consideration for their well-being. In this article, I’m going to provide what I believe is a reasonable and coherent biblical argument that God had more in mind than profiting humanity when He designed and created the myriad diverse, beautiful, and often mysterious animals that share our amazing planet. My goal is to provide insight into what constitutes a biblical perspective of “animal rights,” and the ethical responsibilities we humans have in our relationship with both wild and domesticated animals.

IN THE BEGINNING

The animal rights movement began in the nineteenth century and parallels the emergence of the “humanitarian movement” of the same era, which sought, among other things, to end slavery and the oppression of children. It has since become one of the largest social movements in Western culture. It may surprise readers that the founding fathers of the movement were often Christians. William Wilberforce, usually associated with his long struggle to abolish slavery in the British Empire, along with Anglican priest Arthur Broome, founded the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1824. The RSPCA is the oldest and largest animal welfare organization in the world. The founders considered the Society “a specifically Christian enterprise based on Christian principles.”2 Following RSPCA’s lead, numerous other groups quickly emerged, including the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, established in 1866. The primary goal of these organizations was to make slaughtering practices more humane and to enforce laws for the humane treatment of farm animals.

It’s worth noting that early on the animal rights movement also recognized the importance of the humane treatment and preservation of wildlife. It wasn’t until the last half of the twentieth century, however, that animal rights activists began to focus on the worldwide plight of wild animals, and for good reason. Hundreds of species of animals have become extinct due to human activities, and countless more are threatened with extinction.

The Controversy

During the 1970s, segments of the animal rights movement began to embrace a more radical moral philosophy than their predecessors, one that went far beyond preventing cruelty to animals. It eventually spawned People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) and other aggressive animal rights organizations. The writings of bioethics professor Peter Singer and American philosopher Tom Regan, along with a host of other likeminded activists, elevated the value of animals to the moral equivalency of humans. They insisted that animals have an intrinsic right to live independent and free from human intervention. They should not be considered property; they should receive the same protection under law as people, and rarely, if ever, should they suffer pain on behalf of human welfare. Those on the extremist fringe even argue that animals should be awarded the status of personhood, and, in some cases, are of greater value than humans: “The life of a [disabled] newborn,” writes Singer, “is of less value than the life of a pig, a dog, or a chimpanzee.”3 People who disagree with this are accused of “speciesism”—prejudice and discrimination against animals on par with racism and sexism.

In light of the escalating acceptance of this radical form of animal rights, Christians must ask themselves three questions and seek biblical guidance as we respond to them—if we are to bring Christian principles and values back into the movement. First, do animal rights advocates have a just cause? Second, do animals have value to God beyond their usefulness to people? And third, do humans have a moral responsibility to nonhuman life?

These are difficult questions to answer because they can be considered on various levels. For example, according to ethologist Marc Bekoff, laboratory experiments on animals in 2001 included “690,800 guinea pigs, rabbits, and hamsters, in addition to 161,700 farm animals, 70,000 dogs, 49,400 primates, 22,800 cats, and 80 million mice and rats.”4 In most cases, animals used in laboratory experiments suffer horrendous pain and are usually killed. Scientists agree that such research is vital in order to develop effective treatments for diseases, but should live animals be used to develop cosmetics and in psychological experiments, which also inflict pain and often result in death? People need affordable, nutritious food, but should veal calves be confined to tiny crates, where they can scarcely move their entire short lives? Is it morally justified for chickens, minks, rabbits, and chinchillas to be crammed into battery cages to facilitate the egg-laying capacity of chickens and to provide expensive fur coats for wealthy people (called “factory farming”)? These are not small issues—nor can they be ignored in any consideration of biblical ethics.

DO ANIMAL RIGHTS ADVOCATES HAVE A JUST CAUSE?

Animal rights advocates justify their cause on the grounds that sentient animals have emotional and cognitive characteristics similar—if much less complex—to humans. They not only feel pain but also stress, fear, anxiety, grief, loneliness, despair, and other humanlike characteristics. These attributes have been well documented by numerous studies in animal behavior during the past few decades.5 It’s undebatable that animals are more than mindless biological machines without feeling and emotions. This is reason enough for us to reconsider how we treat and care for nonhuman life.

Although Christians must reject any ideology that elevates animals to human status, the question of what constitutes justifiable animal rights is a legitimate issue, and one that Christians must seriously grapple with from a biblical perspective. I believe the animal rights issue is a moral issue and therefore a legitimate cause. And because Christians are obligated to treat animals according to divine precepts, it is also a theological issue. So the starting point for developing a biblical concept of animal rights is to explore God’s perspective on wild and domesticated animals.

Do Animals Have Value to God beyond Their Usefulness to Humans?

The typical attitude most Christians harbor toward animals is essentially utilitarian and pragmatic. They believe God created animals primarily as a human resource: food, clothing, labor, experimentation, entertainment, and sport. As a result, animal rights has more or less been a nonissue in the church, and little effort has been exerted to develop a biblical understanding of human/animal relationships. Despite the worrisome fact that the animal rights movement continues to grow and become increasingly radicalized, the church has remained mostly indifferent—or outspokenly critical.

The Bible plainly teaches that animals are available for human consumption (Gen. 9:3) and other purposes. From a biblical perspective, we are not being cruel to raise animals for food, to hunt them in order to control overpopulation, and to use them for necessary medical research. But the Bible also teaches that all animal life belongs to God, not to humans: “For every animal of the forest is mine, and the cattle on a thousand hills. I know every bird in the mountains and the creatures of the field are mine (Ps. 50:10-22; cf. Ps. 24:1; Col. 1:16).6 Nowhere does the Bible condone the horrendous abuses and exploitation inflicted on animals by the human race simply because it benefits or amuses us. A survey of God’s perspective on nonhuman life will drive this point home.

Psalm 36:6 tells us that God provides for both humans and animals, and numerous passages teach that God has made provisions for animals to survive and propagate. Job 38 and 39 and Psalm 104, the longest passages in the Bible that deal almost exclusively with nonhuman life, reveal that God provides specific habitats with water, food, and shelter for wildlife. Job reminds us that most events in nature take place beyond human habitats and awareness; only God observes and enjoys all that occurs in the lives of animals. In a series of rhetorical questions, God asks Job, “Do you know when the mountain goats give birth? Do you watch when the doe bears her fawn…? I gave [the wild donkey] the wasteland as his home…. Does the eagle soar at your command and build his nest on high?” (Job 39:1, 6, 27). The self-evident answer to these questions is that only God is present to observe these events.

After the worldwide flood, God issued a covenant with the human race that included animals (Gen. 9:8-11), and centuries later the prophet Hosea spoke of another covenant that would occur in the eschatological future. It includes “the beasts of the field and the birds of the air and the creatures that move along the ground” (2:18). God instructed the Israelites that every seven years they were not to sow or harvest their fields, vineyards, and olive groves so that poor people and wild animals may eat what is left (Exod. 23:10-11).

Similar humane treatment is required for domesticated animals. Proverbs 12:10 points out that “a righteous man cares for the needs of his animals.” Jewish law includes provisions for the humane treatment of domesticated animals. On the Sabbath day, God instructed the Jews to allow their work animals to rest (Exod. 23:12), and not to “muzzle an ox while it is treading out the grain” (Deut. 25:4).7 Even the Ten Commandants have a provision to care for domesticated animals (Exod. 20:9-11).

Although Jesus and the New Testament authors say little about animal life, references to animal welfare are not absent in the text. Jesus admired the birds of the air and pointed out that God cares for and protects them (Matt. 6:26; Luke 12:6, 24), and wild animals accompanied Jesus during His temptation in the wilderness (Mark 1:13). The real argument demonstrating Jesus’ love and concern for animals, however, is theological. By virtue of the fact that Jesus and the Father (along with the Holy Spirit) are one in essence in the triune Godhead, it would have been impossible for Christ not to love and care for wild and domesticated animals the same as does the Father.

All together, these and many other passages reveal that God did not create animals solely for human consumption, comfort, and entertainment. The attention and care God gives to animals refutes the notion that they have value only to the degree they serve human needs and desires. The biblical fact is animals have value to God independent of the human race. This doesn’t mean God values animals as much as He does people or that they deserve the same ethical considerations as do humans. Only people are created in God’s image (Gen. 1:26). We are the crown of creation (Ps. 8:4-8), and God values us far more than animal life (Matt. 10:29-31). But this doesn’t diminish the fact that God values nonhuman life and desires that animals fulfill the purposes for which He created them. For this reason, the animal rights movement is a legitimate cause—assuming it’s carried out within a biblical moral framework. Does the Bible provide such an ethical basis for animal rights? I believe it does, and it includes instructions for how the human race is to relate to other created life.

Do Humans Have Moral Responsibilities over Nonhuman Life?

According to Ecclesiastes 3:19-20, people are no different than animals on a purely physical level. Humans and land-bound animals were created on day six; we all depend on God’s gracious provisions for food and shelter; and we will all eventually die. But the Bible also teaches that there are two fundamental and distinct differences between humans and animals. First, only humans are created in God’s image. As such we enjoy a unique spiritual connectedness with God that animals don’t have. But with this position comes responsibility. Because we are created in God’s image, we should reflect the same attitude and care toward nonhuman life that He does. This leads to the second distinction. God instructed the human race, beginning with Adam, to be stewards of animal life as part of our overall responsibilities as His designated caretakers in creation.

When Adam was told to name the animals God created and brought to him (Gen. 2:19-20), it showed that God was giving Adam authority over them. This is not unlike when we name our pets, or when zookeepers name the animals under their care. In doing so, we are acknowledging our responsibility to care for, and watch over, them.

This helps us to understand what God meant in Genesis 1:28 when He told Adam and Eve to have “dominion” (KJV) over the Earth’s newly created animal life. Space prevents an analysis of what dominion means when examined within its full biblical context, but most theologians agree that dominion (“rule” in modern translations) means stewardship.8 It denotes mankind’s caretaker role in creation; it doesn’t give people a license to use animals any way they please. Look at it like this: at the end of the creation week, God looked upon all He had made and pronounced it “very good” (Gen. 1:31). It doesn’t make sense that He would then turn around and give the Earth’s animals to the human race to abuse and exploit.

This brings us to the matter of ethics. Does the Bible provide moral principles to guide our stewardship activities— and by which we can establish realistic and humane “rights” for animals? I believe it does. Since God instructed the human race to be His caretakers over all of nature, we can be certain that the Bible will contain moral principles to guide this responsibility. In particular, since Jesus is the source and substance of New Testament ethics, we should be able to extrapolate His teachings to embrace nonhuman life. I believe Jesus taught three foundational ethical principles that will guide us as we seek to identify and establish practical, God-honoring rights for animals.

SERVANTHOOD

Christians are told numerous times to be like Jesus (Rom. 13:14; Phil. 2:5; Col. 3:10). When He came to Earth, Jesus took on “the very nature of a servant” (Phil. 2:7), and He expects His followers to be servants also (John 13:15-17). It is not a theological stretch to say that just as Jesus loves us and became our Savior, so too should we not only love other people as Christ loves us but also to consider the outflow of our servanthood to include being “saviors” (protectors) of nonhuman life—as the dominion mandate requires.

Unconditional Love

In the New Testament, the Greek word used to describe God’s love for people is agape. It’s a love that denotes a willful choice. It’s the love that God bestows on people, not because we deserve it, but because He chooses to love us despite our sin and rebellion. It’s unconditional love. This kind of love involves God doing what is best for us, not necessarily what we desire. In a similar way, as God’s caretakers in creation, we make stewardship decisions that may not be in our best interest, but will be in the best interest of threatened and endangered animals and that promote humane treatment for domesticated animals. Thus, we should set aside habitats to ensure the survival of wildlife and, perhaps, be willing to pay a dollar more to purchase eggs from free-range chickens. In other words, we will make choices that advance our stewardship role as protectors of nonhuman life.

The Golden Rule

God’s desire for human relationships is summarized in a beloved passage Christians call the Golden Rule: “So in everything, do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets” (Matt. 7:12). Although this rule is directed to people, the principle behind it could logically and theologically be inclusive to all the life God created and values. Animals provide numerous services and pleasures for humans. They provide us with food and clothing. We can use them for legitimate medical testing in order to develop life-saving drugs. They are companions and aids to the handicapped. Wild animals provide tremendous joy and excitement when we walk through wild country. It seems only reasonable and just that we provide animals with the attention and care that God provides them.

If we apply just these three ethical principles to our relationship with wild and domesticated animals, we will not only treat these creatures fairly and humanely but also fulfill God’s command to be His stewards in creation.

A Hope for the Future

It’s been said that the church has often been on the wrong side of moral issues, such as condoning slavery and the oppression of women, children, and minorities. Of course, with the passage of time, the church recognized the immorality of slavery as well as the equality of men and women and the rights of children and minorities. But the fact that some Christians have endorsed such behavior demonstrates that, at times, Christians have failed miserably to discern divine principles for godly living correctly. I’m concerned that this is also true of our God-given responsibilities to nonhuman life. My hope is that more Christians will begin to take seriously our responsibility as God’s designated caretakers in creation, and thereby have a greater willingness to care and manage domesticated and wild animals as humanely as possible. We can do this without compromising human health and well-being. We should do this because the Bible clearly reveals that animals are valuable to God by virtue of their creation, not just because they serve humanity.

NOTES

  1. Andrew Linzey, Creatures of the Same God: Explorations in Animal Theology (New York: Lantern Books, 2009), 12−13.
  2. , 26.
  3. Quoted in Scott Klusendorf, “Death with a Happy Face: Peter Singer’s Bold Defense of Infanticide,” Christian Research Journal 23, 3 (2001): 25.
  4. Marc Bekoff, The Emotional Lives of Animals: A Leading Scientist Explores Animal Joy, Sorrow, and Empathy—and Why They Matter (Novato, CA: New World Library, 2007), 138.
  5. See Marc Bekoff, Animal Passions and Beastly Virtues: Reflections on Redecorating Nature (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2006).
  6. All Scripture quotations are from the New International Version.
  7. In 1 Corinthians 9:9–10, Paul appears to reinterpret the intent of Deuteronomy 25:4. However, Paul is merely drawing an additional application from this passage by giving a spiritual (and practical) principle: If we allow domesticated animals to benefit from their labor, even more so should the apostles, who are laboring for the Gospel, be supported by the church. Paul is not contradicting what is a clear instruction in Deuteronomy, nor is he suggesting that God does not care about oxen. It is not unusual for New Testament writers to find New Covenant applications in Old Covenant instructions.
  8. I provide an in-depth analysis of “subdue” and “dominion” (rule) in my book, Should Christians Be Environmentalists? (Grand Rapids: Kregel Publications, 2012), chap. 8.

http://www.equip.org/article/is-animal-rights-a-biblical-concern/

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Animals – 3

ANIMAL RIGHTS – PART 1

Do animals have rights? It is becoming quite common to think so. Talk about animal rights follows on, of course, from talk about human rights. Those who advocate animal rights are proposing we extend the idea of rights from humans to other animals. How should Christians think about this? Does the Bible give us any guidance?

A Biblical Basis

A more biblical sort of question about animals would be this: do we humans have a duty to love animals, just as we have a duty to love our fellow humans? We are commanded to love God and our (human) neighbours, but what about other creatures? Even if the Bible does not instruct us in so many words to love all our fellow creatures, it nevertheless rather strongly implies that we should. ‘Be merciful,’ said Jesus, ‘just as your Father is merciful.’1 God’s mercy is his caring and compassionate love, which he extends not only to humans but also to all his creatures. He ‘is good to all, and his compassion is over all he had made’.2 The psalmist can even say that God, in his love and his righteousness, saves ‘humans and animals alike.’3 So, if we are to love as God loves, surely we must love all that God loves.

 

This ‘love’ of animals requires recognising that they have value independently of us. They don’t exist just to be useful to us. They have value for themselves and for God. Our treatment of them should respect the value God has given them in creating them. But unfortunately, Christians have not always recognised this. In Christian history much damage has been done by misinterpretation of the first chapter of Genesis, with God’s command to humans to ‘have dominion’ over other creatures on earth.4 This has been taken to mean that animals are there for us to make whatever use we wish for our own benefit. But this was a view of animals that came from Greek philosophy, not from the Bible, and was read into the Genesis text.

What does ‘dominion’ imply?

Most Christians now recognise that the special role in creation that God has given to humans is not one of exploitation but of responsibility. Human ‘dominion’ is in the context of, and reflects, God’s rule over his world, which is that caring, compassionate love for all his creatures that we have already noticed in the Psalms.5 The rest of creation is not there just for human benefit (though, of course, we must use our environment to live, as all earthly creatures must). What human dominion over animals means is clarified in some other parts of the Old Testament. In an obviously exceptional but instructive instance, Noah exercises the dominion when he preserves all the species of animals thought the flood. Israelite land Law, with its rules about leaving the land fallow in the seventh year, includes a concern for the effect of agriculture on wild animals.6 These examples are surely precedents for acting to preserve species in what amounts to a contemporary deluge of destruction of species, and for taking care to preserve the habitat and resources that wild animals need, not monopolising the world’s resources for human use.

There is also concern about the treatment of domestic animals. The Sabbath rest is for them as well as for people.7 The ox treading grain should not be muzzled.8 Consideration for their animals is characteristic of the righteous.9 In the terms of our contemporary debate, these duties to animals presuppose the value and the rights of animals. If we have a duty not to inflict suffering on animals, then it follows that they have a right not to suffer human abuse. But as Christians we can add to the contemporary debate that whatever rights animals have are rooted in the value God has given them as his creatures. Just as human rights are ultimately based in the value God sets on each one of his human creatures, so animal rights are based on their value for God.

Fellow creatures

The biblical passage cited all relate to the idea of the human ‘dominion’ over other creatures. They envisage a ‘vertical’ relationship of humans to animals, in which humans are in some sense set ‘over’ other creatures. But the Bible also uses another, complementary way of portraying our relationship to animals. This is a ‘horizontal’ relationship in which we stand alongside other creatures. The key thought is simply that they and we are all creatures of God. This thought is just as prominent in the Bible as the idea of ‘dominion,’ but it has been given less attention. In my view, we shall only get the ‘dominion’ right if we also get the relationship of fellow-creatureliness right too. For example, the covenant God made with Noah was made not just with humans but with all living creatures on earth (Gen 9: 9-10). When God speaks about the whole earth, as he does in this covenant, he thinks of all the living creatures to whom he has given it as home. Humans do not have exclusive rights to the earth. We can see this also in Psalm 104, which surveys God’s creation, noting how God has provided homes and resources for all living creatures. We humans appear only as one such category of creature alongside others (Ps. 104:23). We are not even at the climax of the catalogue – an honour that goes to Leviathan (v 26). Such passages place us firmly within the community of God’s creation, as creatures who share God’s earth with other creatures.

A passage worth some pondering is God’s answer to Job (especially chapters 38-39). Job’s problem was partly that he thought that all God’s ways should be focused on him (and other humans). And part of God’s answer was to show Job the immensity and diversity of the creation. God has many other creatures to care about and they simply have nothing to do with Job. The notion of human ‘dominion’ over animals had no real meaning in relation to most of the animals God depicts in Job 39. They lived entirely independently of Job. The point is to make Job realise this and put him in his place. Job 38-39 is a good antidote to exaggerated emphasis on human ‘dominion.’ Nowadays humans do influence the lives of animals such as those portrayed in Job 39. We have so dominated the earth that the fates of whole species lie in our hands. But God’s speech to Job powerfully reminds us that we are not the be all and end all of creation. In our contemporary circumstances, the ‘dominion’ should therefore be exercised with considerable restraint. Exercising it responsibly today requires primarily that we learn to let other creatures be.

In my view, the most important way in which Scripture sets us alongside the animals as fellow creatures is its portrayal of the worship of God by all of God’s creation.11 Modern readers of the Bible sometimes take such passages to be mere poetic fancy. Of course, they do not mean that other creatures worship God in the ways that we do. Other creatures worship God just by being themselves. They exist for God’s glory. Their worship expresses the value they have for God.

The best way to learn to value other creatures is to learn to worship with them, to recover the sense, so powerful in the book of Psalms, that our own worship is part of the worship of the whole creation. In worship, we do not stand above our fellow-creatures, but beside them and before the God who created us all. The Bible never suggests that we help other creatures to worship. Rather, a passage like Psalm 148 gives the strong impression that they help us to worship. Coming to appreciate the value they have for God raises our hearts and minds in praise to their Creator.

1 Luke 6:36 2 Ps 145:9 3 Ps 36:6, NRSV 4 Gen 1:26, 28 5 Ps 36:5, 6;

145:8, 9 6 Lev 25:7 7 Exod 20:10; Deut 5:12 8 Deut 25:4 9 Prov 12:10

10 Gen 9:9, 10 11 Isa 42:10; Ps 69:34; 96:11, 12; 97:6; 98:7, 8; 103:22; 148; 150:6, Phil 2:1; Rev 5:13

http://www.aswa.org.uk/page/articles/loving_our_fellow_creatures/

Unreached Peoples – 1

MATTHEW 28:19-20

‘Go therefore and make disciples of all nations (1), baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you. And behold, I am with you always, to the end of the age.’

A thorough consideration of the Old Testament passages in the Hebrew text and in the Greek Septuagint; the New Testament passages in the Greek; and a review of the language oriented commentaries clearly and almost exhaustingly show that “nations” as seen in the Greek phrase “ta ethne” means an ethnolinguistic people group. This is very much in keeping with the number 1 definition of “nations” in Webster’s Dictionary. Webster’s dictionary, in its number 1 definition defines a “nation” or “nations” as: “A stable, historically developed community of people with a territory, economic life, distinctive culture, and language in common.” Therefore, common evangelism and mission treatments of passages such as Matthew 28:19-20, Luke 24, Acts 1:8 and John 4:33-41 should be interpreted in light of context, content and linguistic word studies related to “nation” as Jesus, the Disciples, the Old Testament Jews, the New Testament Christians understood “nations” in their day.

MATTHEW 24:14

‘This gospel of the Kingdom shall be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all the nations and then the end will come.’

How many People Groups are there in the world?

Some say 27,000. Others say 16,000. Some suggest 13,000. Still others say 10,500. Which numbers are correct? Could they all be correct? The many different answers to this question often cause confusion.

Different sources quote significantly different numbers. If we are commanded to make disciples of all people groups, just how many are there? But before trying to answer that, an example might help illustrate why the confusion exists. Suppose someone innocently asked … What is the largest country? What is the answer? It all depends on what is meant by “largest.” The answer is Russia if largest refers to geographic land area. The answer is China if largest refers to population. The answer is the United States if largest means financially. All are different, yet are correct answers to the same simple question. The underlying issue is definitions … what is meant by” largest?” So the core question is what is meant by the term ” people group?”

What is a People Group?

The Lausanne 1982 people group definition says “For evangelization purposes, a people group is the largest group within which the Gospel can spread as a church planting movement without encountering barriers of understanding or acceptance”.

The Joshua Project list is just a step toward a yet to be defined larger peoples list. From a church planting perspective, a complete peoples list would be a unimax peoples list. Unimax people are defined as “the maximum sized group sufficiently unified to be the target of a single people movement to Christ, where “unified” refers to the fact that there are no significant barriers of either understanding or acceptance to stop the spread of the gospel.” (“Finishing the Task”, Perspectives on the World Christian Movement, Winter and Koch, 1999. There are two barriers cited, (1) understanding, and (2) acceptance. The barrier of understanding suggests that language always is important when defining a people group. If for a particular situation the understanding barrier is more important than the acceptance barrier then defining people group by language, perhaps exclusively by language, is appropriate. And this seems to be the case in most cultures and situations. In other situations the acceptance barrier may be as high, or perhaps higher, than the understanding barrier.

The reasons for lack of acceptance may include caste, religious tradition, location, common histories and traditions, and other subtle cultural distinctives. In these situations the barrier of acceptance should be considered on an equal footing with the barrier of understanding, and sometimes acceptance is a higher barrier than is the barrier of understanding.

Ethno-linguistic Peoples Lists

Because of the remarkable language research compiled in the last 100 years, the first people group lists have generally been ethno-linguistic, meaning that a people generally was defined by language and/or dialect. Because of language research and the somewhat definable nature of language, ethno-linguistic peoples lists generally have uniform definitions across all countries and tend to be an “apples-to-apples” comparison. Ethno-linguistic peoples lists have great usefulness, particularly for language-oriented outreach and ministries.

Ethnic Peoples Lists

While language is a key barrier to understanding, in parts of the world factors other than language form barriers of acceptance across which the Gospel will not naturally flow. For church planting purposes, it is helpful to allow factors other than language to define the boundaries of a people group. An ethnic peoples list, in addition to language, allows distinctives such as religion, caste and culture to define a people group. In parts of the world where peoples are defined by their language an ethnic peoples list and an ethno-linguistic peoples list are virtually the same. However in places like South Asia, parts of North Africa and China, where religion, caste and culture are more determinative than language in defining a people group, an ethnic peoples list and an ethno-linguistic list can be quite different. For example, in India there are approximately 450 ethno-linguistic people / language groups but over 2,300 ethnic people groups when caste, religion and cultural factors are considered.

Does moving to Ethnic Peoples list get messy?

Yes. Ethno-linguistic peoples lists tend to have uniform definitions and global standards and generally yield “apples-to-apples” results. However, an ethnic (culturalethno- linguistic) peoples list allowing language, religion, caste and/or cultural distinctives to define a people group can occasionally introduce a bit of “apples-to-oranges” comparison. National and local people group researchers in one area of the world may use slightly different definitions based on their perception of onsite realities compared to another area of the world. Each may differently evaluate the barriers of acceptance. Even with these limitations, the hope is that an ethnic peoples list can help continue to define the church planting task of the Great Commission.

Is the Joshua Project list a Unimax Peoples list?

No. Unimax peoples may involve distinctives such as education, political and ideological convictions, historical enmity between clans or tribes, customs and behaviors, etc. that are not considered in the current Joshua Project list of ethnic peoples. In certain parts of the world such as South Asia, where extensive caste research has been done, a much clearer church planting picture is emerging. In these areas an ethnic peoples list is moving closer to a Unimax peoples listing. In other parts of the world, there will be barriers of acceptance that will only be determined once workers are on-site.

Therefore, all lists of peoples will be estimates until the task is completed. While the Joshua Project list offers a certain level of understanding regarding people group church-planting needs, it is not a complete unimax peoples list. The World Christian Encyclopedia estimates approximately 27,000 total unimax peoples.

What if Country Boundaries are Ignored?

All the above models consider country boundaries when defining people groups. For example, if the Tatar are in 21 Central Asian countries they are counted 21 times.

Some hold that in the purest sense people groups should be counted without reference to political boundaries. The suggestion is that modern country boundaries did not exist when the command of Matthew 28:19 “to make disciples of all the ethne” was given. Others suggest that in many cases political boundaries do not distinguish peoples. The “pure peoples” model counts the Tatar living in 21 Central Asian countries as one people group, not 21. By following standard Registry of Peoples (ROP) coding, the Joshua Project list allows country boundaries to be counted or ignored as desired. The current Joshua Project count for peoples-by-country is approximately 16,600 and the count for pure peoples is about 10,500.

Model Strengths and Weaknesses

The various models have different strengths and serve different purposes. An ethno-linguistic peoples list has a somewhat quantifiable criterion namely language, and serves as a helpful target for language oriented ministries such as radio broadcasting, Jesus Film production Bible translation, etc. An ethnic peoples list considers non-language distinctives which create significant barriers of acceptance and presents a church planting target that begins to quantify some of these acceptance barriers. An estimated model serves as a reminder of the yet to be quantified, ultimate task.

Other Factors in People Group Counts

When comparing lists of peoples care should be taken to understand all factors. For example, some lists have population cutoff points. The original Joshua Project list

of approximately 1,600 peoples only considered people groups greater than or equal to 10,000 in a given country. The India Missions Association (IMA) list for India cuts off the population at 10,000, yielding about 950 groups. Another example is the K.S. Singh list for India peoples which often breaks people groups by state boundaries, yielding a total of about 4,700 groups for India. Understanding these kinds of factors helps explain the very different counts that result.

So What is the Answer?

So after all that, what is the answer to the simple question of how many people groups are there? It depends, if referring to ethno-linguistic peoples about 13,000 and if referring to unimax peoples (the church planting perspective) about 27,000, of which about 16,000 are listed here as ‘ethnic’ (cultural-ethnolinguistic) peoples’. Or if referring to ethnic (cultural ethno-linguistic) peoples without reference to country boundaries about 10,100. All are right answers depending on the perspective.

Summary of People Group Counts

Resulting List,  Total Peoples, Counting Method, Least-Reached

Ethno-linguistic peoples 13,000 Peoples-by-Country ~ 4,000

Ethnic peoples 16,600 Peoples-by-Country ~ 6,700

Ethnic peoples 9,800 Peoples without considering Country boundaries ~ 4,100

Unimax peoples 27,000 Mixed ~ 13,000

Go the following website for lists of unreached peoples:

www.joshuaproject.net

A simpler way of understanding the task ahead is as follows:

CHURCH

A word of warning! It can be very easy to simply focus on the needs of the church family, either one’s own church or the wider church, and not be open to what God is calling you to in the wider world.

When we talk about the church here, we mean those who are committed members of a local congregation or the wider church. The people are those whom one would call your brothers and sisters in the faith, but your calling is to more than the basic minimum of loving, for it is likely to having a specific effect on a group of people, whether it be a small group or a larger group. For example, your ministry might be, as part of a small group, to help others discover their ministry.

FRINGE

These are the people who are not involved in the church, who have probably not made a true commitment to follow Jesus, but do have some connection to the church. Their attendance may vary considerably, from none to fairly regularly. They may attend a activity run by the church with spiritual content, so have a certain openness to the Gospel lifestyle.

GEOGRAPHICALLY & RELATIONALLY NEAR

Here we are talking about those who definitely don’t follow the Jesus lifestyle, but you would have something in common with them. For example, you may work with them, or have a similar interest, or it could simply be family, friends or neighbours. This means being involved in ministries that cater for where they are in their journey to faith.

GEOGRAPHICALLY NEAR BUT RELATIONALLY DISTANT

There are many people groups who you may or may not see around you who have nothing in common with you, like motorbikers or Gypsies, but you have a God-given concern for them, whether it be evangelistically or otherwise. You probably have a skill which could be used in a different context and act as a bridge between the Church and that particular people group.

We also would include those who may come from a different ethnic and religious background from yourself. For example, there may be Muslims living in your street, who only know other Muslims, some of whom may live a long distance away. Simply spending time with them, could develop into a ministry to local Muslims!

GEOGRAPHICALY FAR BUT RELATIONALLY NEAR

This group of people are likely to be similar to those who are geographically and relationally near, or even the church and fringe groups, but are located in another culture. Here one may be called to actually move to another part of the world in a support ministry to those who are working amongst the local people. But it could also mean regular visits in the holiday times or involved in developing support back home for the work overseas.

GEOGRAPHICALLY & RELATIONALLY FAR

The people groups within this category are probably the hardest to have a ministry amongst, often because they are in a ‘closed’ country, ie somewhere that does not allow Christians to demonstrate anything that has any links to the Gospel. But that does not mean there is nothing one can do – for example, there is radio ministry, obviously prayer and then one might be able to go on a ‘tentmaking’ ministry using your skills to help that people develop their economy or education, etc. If one does go into such a country, one’s faith needs to be really strong, as there may be long periods of isolation from other believers.

God – 6

DESCRIPTORS OF GOD’S CHARACTERISTICS – PART 3

(41) TRUSTWORTHY

o   But for all this, you did not trust the LORD your God. (Deuteronomy 1:32 (NASB))

o   “LORD, there is no one besides You to help in the battle between the powerful and those who have no strength; so help us, O LORD our God, for we trust in You, and in Your name have come against this multitude. O LORD, You are our God; let not man prevail against You.” (2 Chronicles 14:11 (NASB))

o   “Listen to me, O Judah and inhabitants of Jerusalem, put your trust in the LORD your God and you will be established. Put your trust in His prophets and succeed.” (2 Chronicles 20:20 (NASB))

o   I hate those who regard vain idols, But I trust in the LORD. (Psalm 31:6 (NASB))

o   Trust in the LORD and do good; Dwell in the land and cultivate faithfulness. (Psalm 37:3 (NASB))

o   Commit your way to the LORD, Trust also in Him, and He will do it. (Psalm 37:5 (NASB))

o   He put a new song in my mouth, a song of praise to our God; Many will see and fear And will trust in the LORD. (Psalm 40:3 (NASB))

o   But as for me, I am like a green olive tree in the house of God; I trust in the lovingkindness of God forever and ever. (Psalm 52:8 (NASB))

o   In God I have put my trust, I shall not be afraid. What can man do to me? (Psalm 56:11 (NASB))

o   Who is among you that fears the LORD, That obeys the voice of His servant, That walks in darkness and has no light? Let him trust in the name of the LORD and rely on his God. (Isaiah 50:10 (NASB))

(42) SOVEREIGN

o   O Sovereign LORD, you have begun to show to your servant your greatness and your strong hand. For what god is there in heaven or on earth who can do the deeds and mighty works you do? (Deuteronomy 3:24 (NIV))

o   What more can David say to you? For you know your servant, O Sovereign LORD. (“ Samuel 7:20 (NIV))

o   How great you are, O Sovereign LORD! There is no one like you, and there is no God but you, as we have heard with our own ears. (2 Samuel 7:22 (NIV))

o   Now be pleased to bless the house of your servant, that it may continue forever in your sight; for you, O Sovereign LORD, have spoken, and with your blessing the house of your servant will be blessed forever. (2 Samuel 7:29 (NIV))

o   I will come and proclaim your mighty acts, O Sovereign LORD; I will proclaim your righteousness, yours alone. (Psalm 71:16 (NIV))

o   See, the Sovereign LORD comes with power, and his arm rules for him. See, his reward is with him, and his recompense accompanies him. (Isaiah 41:10 (NIV))

o   The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is on me, because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted, to proclaim freedom for the captives and release from darkness for the prisoners. (Isaiah 61:1 (NIV))

o   And when they heard it, they lifted their voices together to God and said, “Sovereign Lord, who made the heaven and the earth and the sea and everything in them. (Acts 4:24 (ESV))

o   He who is the blessed and only Sovereign, the King of kings and Lord of lords. (1 Timothy 6:15 (NASB))

o   They cried out with a loud voice, “O Sovereign Lord, holy and true, how long before you will judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” (Revelation 6:10 (ESV))

(43) MERCIFUL

o   For it was of the LORD to harden their hearts, to meet Israel in battle in order that he might utterly destroy them, that they might receive no mercy, but that he might destroy them, just as the LORD had commanded Moses. (Joshua 11:20 (NASB))

o   For the Lord your God is gracious and merciful; He will not turn [His] face away from you if you return to Him. (2 Chronicles 30:9b (Holman’s))

o   The LORD is gracious and merciful; Slow to anger and great in lovingkindness. (Psalm 145:8 (NASB))

o   I knew that You are a merciful and compassionate God, slow to become angry, rich in faithful love, and One who relents from [sending] disaster. (Jonah 4:2b (Holman’s))

o   And He did not let him, but He said to him, “Go home to your people and report to them what great things the Lord has done for you, and how He had mercy on you.” (Mark 5:19 (NASB))

o   AND HIS MERCY IS UPON GENERATION AFTER GENERATION TOWARD THOSE WHO FEAR HIM. (Luke 1:50 (NASB))

o   Because of the tender mercy of our God, with which the Sunrise from on high will visit us. (Luke 1:78 (NASB))

o   For He says to Moses, “I WILL HAVE MERCY ON WHOM I HAVE MERCY, AND I WILL HAVE COMPASSION ON WHOM I HAVE COMPASSION.” (Romans 9:15 (NASB))

o   For God has shut up all in disobedience so that He may show mercy to all. (Romans 11:32 (NASB))

o   Now concerning virgins I have no command of the Lord, but I give an opinion as one who by the mercy of the Lord is trustworthy. (1 Corinthians 7:25 (NASB))

o   Even though I was formerly a blasphemer and a persecutor and a violent aggressor. Yet I was shown mercy because I acted ignorantly in unbelief (1 Timothy 1:13 (NASB))

o   He saved us, not on the basis of deeds which we have done in righteousness, but according to His mercy, by the washing of regeneration and renewing by the Holy Spirit. (Titus 3:5 (NASB))

o   For I will be merciful to their wrongdoing, and I will never again remember their sins. (Hebrews 8:12 (Holman’s))

o   Keep yourselves in the love of God, waiting anxiously for the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ to eternal life. (Jude 1:21 (NASB))

(44) UNCHANGEABLE

o   God is not man, that he should lie, or a son of man, that he should change his mind. Has he said, and will he not do it? Or has he spoken, and will he not fulfil it? (Numbers 23:19 (ESV))

o   But he is unchangeable, and who can turn him back? What he desires, that he does. (Job 23:13 (ESV))

o   The counsel of the Lord stands forever, the plans of his heart to all generations. (Psalm 33:11 (ESV))

o   For I the Lord do not change; therefore you, O children of Jacob, are not consumed. (Malachi 3:6 (ESV))

o   So when God desired to show more convincingly to the heirs of the promise the unchangeable character of his purpose, he guaranteed it with an oath. (Hebrews 6:17 (ESV))

(45) INFINITE/ETERNAL

o   The eternal God is thy refuge, and underneath are the everlasting arms: and he shall thrust out the enemy from before thee; and shall say, Destroy them. (Deuteronomy 33:27 (KJV))

o   Furthermore, the Eternal One of Israel does not lie or change His mind, for He is not man who changes his mind.” (1 Samuel 15:29 (Holman’s))

o   May the Lord your God be praised! He delighted in you and put you on the throne of Israel, because of the Lord’s eternal love for Israel. He has made you king to carry out justice and righteousness. (1 King 10:9 (Holman’s))

o   Great is our Lord, and of great power: his understanding is infinite. (Psalm 147:5 (KJV))

o   For a child will be born for us, a son will be given to us, and the government will be on His shoulders. He will be named Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Eternal Father, Prince of Peace.(Isaiah 9:6 (Holman’s))

o   But the Lord is the true God; He is the living God and eternal King. (Jeremiah 10:10 (Holman’s))

o   Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only wise God, be honour and glory for ever and ever. Amen. (1 Timothy 1:17 (KJV))

o   Now the God of all grace, who called you to His eternal glory in Christ Jesus, will personally restore, establish, strengthen, and support you after you have suffered a little. (1 Peter 5:10 (Holman’s))

(46) INCOMPREHENSIBLE (beyond human understanding):

o   The Lord gives, and the Lord takes away. Praise the name of the Lord. (Job 1:21 (Holman’s))

o   Who does great things, unfathomable, and wondrous works without number were He to pass by me, I would not see Him; were He to move past me, I would not perceive Him. Were He to snatch away, who could restrain Him? Who could say to Him, “What art Thou doing?” (Job 9:10-12)

o   Can you fathom the depths of God or discover the limits of the Almighty? [They are] higher than the heavens – what can you do? [They are] deeper than Sheol — what can you know? (Job 11:7-8 (Holman’s)

o   Where were you when I established the earth? Tell [Me], if you have understanding. Who fixed its dimensions? Certainly you know! Who stretched a measuring line across it? What supports its foundations? Or who laid its cornerstone while the morning stars sang together and all the sons of God shouted for joy? Who enclosed the sea behind doors when it burst from the womb, when I made the clouds its garment and thick darkness its blanket, ….. (Job 38:4ff Holman’s))

o   [This] extraordinary knowledge is beyond me. It is lofty; I am unable to [reach] it. (Psalm 139:6 (Holman’s))

o   Oh, the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and the knowledge of God! How unsearchable His judgments and untraceable His ways! For who has known the mind of the Lord? Or who has been His counsellor? Or who has ever first given to Him, and has to be repaid?   (Romans 11:33-35 (Holman’s))

o   And to know the Messiah’s love that surpasses knowledge, so you may be filled with all the fullness of God. (Ephesians 3:19 (Holman’s))

o   And the peace of God, which surpasses every thought, will guard your hearts and your minds in Christ Jesus. (Philippians 4:7 (Holman’s))

(47) SUPREME (pre-eminent):

o   Turn to Me, and be saved, all the ends of the earth; For I am God, and there is no other. (Isaiah 45:22)

o   Remember the former things long past, For I am God, and there is no other; I am God, and there is no one like Me. (Isaiah 46:9)

o   And this is eternal life, that they know you the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom you have sent. (John 17:3 (ESV))

o   He is the head of the body, the church; He is the beginning, the first-born from the dead, that in everything He might be pre-eminent. (Colossians 1:18 (RSV))

o   Now to the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory forever and ever. Amen. (1 Timothy 1:17)

o   To the only God our Saviour, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen. (Jude 1:25)

(48) TRANSCENDENT (above and beyond man):

o   Oh come, let us sing to the Lord; let us make a joyful noise to the rock of our salvation! Let us come into his presence with thanksgiving; let us make a joyful noise to him with songs of praise! For the Lord is a great God, and a great King above all gods. In his hand are the depths of the earth; the heights of the mountains are his also. The sea is his, for he made it, and his hands formed the dry land. (Psalm 95:1ff (ESV))

o   O Lord, You have searched me and known me! You know when I sit down and when I rise up; You discern my thoughts from afar. You search out my path and my lying down and are acquainted with all my ways. Even before a word is on my tongue, behold, O Lord, You know it altogether. You hem me in, behind and before, and lay Your hand upon me. (Psalm 139:1ff (ESV))

o   For My thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways My ways, declares the Lord. For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are My ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts. (Isaiah 55:8-9 (ESV))

o   In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. (John 1:1 (ESV))

o   Oh, the depth of the riches and wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and how inscrutable His ways! “For who has known the mind of the Lord, or who has been His counsellor?” “Or who has given a gift to Him that he might be repaid?” For from Him and through Him and to Him are all things. To Him be glory forever. Amen. (Romans 11:33-36 (ESV))

(49) BEAUTIFUL

o   One thing have I asked of the Lord, that will I seek after: that I may dwell in the house of the Lord all the days of my life, to gaze upon the beauty of the Lord and to inquire in his temple. (Psalm 27:4 (ESV))

o   Out of Zion, the perfection of beauty, God hath shined forth. (Psalm 50:2 (KJV))

o   In that day the Lord of hosts will be a crown of glory, and a diadem of beauty, to the remnant of his people. (Isaiah 28:5 (ESV))

(50) IMPECCABILTY (without sin)

o   Jesus was led up by the Spirit into the wilderness to be tempted by the devil. (Matthew 4:1 (NKJV)) (as a man)

o   For our sake He made Him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in Him we might become the righteousness of God. (2 Corinthians 5:21)

o   For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but one who in every respect has been tempted as we are, yet without sin. (Hebrews 4:15)

o   …God cannot be tempted by evil, nor does He tempt anyone. (James 1:13b (NKJV))

o   He committed no sin, neither was deceit found in His mouth. (1 Peter 2:22)

(51) GRACE

o   How much worse punishment, do you think, will be deserved by the one who has spurned the Son of God, and has profaned the blood of the covenant by which he was sanctified, and has outraged the Spirit of grace? (Hebrews 10:29 (ESV))

(52) JOY

o   For the joy of the Lord is your strength. (Nehemiah 8:10b)

o   These things have I spoken to you, that My joy might remain in you, and that your joy might be full. (John 15:11)

o   You also became imitators of us and of the Lord, having received the word in much tribulation with the joy of the Holy Spirit. (1 Thessalonians 1:6)

Posted in God.

God – 5

DESCRIPTORS OF GOD’S CHARACTERISTICS – PART 2

(21) GREAT

o   O Lord God, you have only begun to show your servant your greatness and your might; what god in heaven or on earth can perform deeds and mighty acts like yours! (Deuteronomy 3:24 (NRSV))

o   Look, the Lord our God has shown us his glory and greatness, and we have heard his voice out of the fire. Today we have seen that God may speak to someone and the person may still live. (Deuteronomy 5:24))

o   I prayed to the Lord and said, “Lord God, do not destroy the people who are your very own possession, whom you redeemed in your greatness, whom you brought out of Egypt with a mighty hand.” (Deuteronomy 9:26 (NRSV))

o   For I will proclaim the name of the Lord; ascribe greatness to our God! (Deuteronomy 32:3 (NRSV))

o   Yours, O Lord, are the greatness, the power, the glory, the victory, and the majesty; for all that is in the heavens and on the earth is yours; yours is the kingdom, O Lord, and you are exalted as head above all. (1 Chronicles 29:11 (NRSV))

o   And I commanded the Levites that they should purify themselves and come and guard the gates, to keep the Sabbath day holy. Remember this also in my favour, O my God, and spare me according to the greatness of your steadfast love. (Nehemiah 13:22 (NRSV))

o   Great is the Lord, and greatly to be praised; his greatness is unsearchable. (Psalm 145:3 (NRSV))

o   So I will display my greatness and my holiness and make myself known in the eyes of many nations. Then they shall know that I am the Lord. (Ezekiel 38:23 (NRSV))

o   And what is the immeasurable greatness of his power for us who believe, according to the working of his great power. (Ephesians 1:19 (NRSV))

(22) JOY

o   Splendour and majesty are before him; strength and joy in his dwelling place. (1 Chronicles 16:27 (NIV))

o   Nehemiah said, “Go and enjoy choice food and sweet drinks, and send some to those who have nothing prepared. This day is sacred to our Lord. Do not grieve, for the joy of the LORD is your strength.” (Nehemiah 8:10 (NIV))

(23) OWNER

o   Now therefore, if you will indeed obey my voice and keep my covenant, you shall be my treasured possession among all peoples, for all the earth is mine. (Exodus 19:5 (ESV))

o   You shall be holy to me, for I the Lord am holy and have separated you from the peoples, that you should be mine.   (Leviticus 20:26 (ESV))

o   Vengeance is mine, and recompense, for the time when their foot shall slip; for the day of their calamity is at hand, and their doom comes swiftly. (Deuteronomy 32:35 (ESV))

o   Who has first given to me, that I should repay him? Whatever is under the whole heaven is mine. (Job 41:11 (ESV))

o   For every beast of the forest is mine, the cattle on a thousand hills. I know all the birds of the hills, and all that moves in the field is mine. If I were hungry, I would not tell you, for the world and its fullness are mine. (Psalm 50:10-12 (ESV))

o   The silver is mine, and the gold is mine, declares the Lord of hosts. (Haggai 2:8 (ESV))

o   Every branch of mine that does not bear fruit he takes away, and every branch that does bear fruit he prunes, that it may bear more fruit. (John 15:2 (ESV))

(24) EXALTED

o   The Lord lives, and blessed be my rock, and exalted be my God, the rock of my salvation. (2 Samuel 22:47 (ESV))

o   Yours, O Lord, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, for all that is in the heavens and in the earth is yours. Yours is the kingdom, O Lord, and you are exalted as head above all. (1 Chronicles 29:11 (ESV))

o   Then the Levites, Jeshua, Kadmiel, Bani, Hashabneiah, Sherebiah, Hodiah, Shebaniah, and Pethahiah, said, “Stand up and bless the Lord your God from everlasting to everlasting. Blessed be your glorious name, which is exalted above all blessing and praise.” (Nehemiah 9:5 (ESV))

o   Behold, God is exalted in his power; who is a teacher like him? (Job 36:22 (ESV))

o   The Lord lives, and blessed be my rock, and exalted be the God of my salvation. (Psalm 18:46 (ESV))

o   Be exalted, O Lord, in your strength! We will sing and praise your power. (Psalm 21:13 (ESV))

o   “Be still, and know that I am God. I will be exalted among the nations, I will be exalted in the earth!” (psalm 46:10 (ESV))

o   Be exalted, O God, above the heavens! Let your glory be over all the earth! (Psalm 57:5 (ESV))

o   I bow down toward your holy temple and give thanks to your name for your steadfast love and your faithfulness, for you have exalted above all things your name and your word. (Psalm 138:2 (ESV))

o   But the Lord of hosts is exalted in justice, and the Holy God shows Himself holy in righteousness. (Isaiah 5:16 (ESV))

(25) CONSUMING/WRATH

o   To the Israelites the glory of the LORD looked like a consuming fire on top of the mountain. (Exodus 24:17 (NIV))

o   For the LORD your God is a consuming fire, a jealous God. (Deuteronomy 4:24 (NIV))

o   See, the Name of the LORD comes from afar, with burning anger and dense clouds of smoke; his lips are full of wrath, and his tongue is a consuming fire. (Isaiah 30:27 (NIV))

o   The LORD will cause men to hear his majestic voice and will make them see his arm coming down with raging anger and consuming fire, with cloudburst, thunderstorm and hail. (Isaiah 30:30 (NIV))

o   Therefore, since we are receiving a kingdom that cannot be shaken, let us be thankful, and so worship God acceptably with reverence and awe, 29 for our “God is a consuming fire.” (Hebrews 12:28-29 (NIV))

(26) LOVE

o   The LORD did not set his love upon you, nor choose you, because ye were more in number than any people; for ye were the fewest of all people: (Deuteronomy 7:7 (KJV))

o   And he will love thee, and bless thee, and multiply thee: he will also bless the fruit of thy womb, and the fruit of thy land, thy corn, and thy wine, and thine oil, the increase of thy kin, and the flocks of thy sheep, in the land which he swear unto thy fathers to give thee. (Deuteronomy 7:13 (KJV))

o   In all their affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his presence saved them: in his love and in his pity he redeemed them; and he bare them, and carried them all the days of old. (Isaiah 63:9 (KJV))

o   The LORD hath appeared of old unto me, saying, Yea, I have loved thee with an everlasting love: therefore with lovingkindness have I drawn thee. (Jeremiah 31:3 (KJV))

o   The LORD thy God in the midst of thee is mighty; he will save, he will rejoice over thee with joy; he will rest in his love, he will joy over thee with singing. (Zephaniah 3:17 (KJV))

o   Therefore doth my Father love me, because I lay down my life, that I might take it again. (John 10:17 (KJV))

o   Jesus answered and said unto him, If a man love me, he will keep my words: and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with him. (john 14:23 (KJV))

o   As the Father hath loved me, so have I loved you: continue ye in my love. (John 15:9 (KJV))

o   This is my commandment, That ye love one another, as I have loved you. (John 15:12 (KJV))

o   And hope maketh not ashamed; because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts by the Holy Ghost which is given unto us. (Romans 5:5 (KJV))

o   But God commendeth his love toward us, in that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. (Romans 5:8 (KJV))

o   Who shall separate us from the love of Christ? shall tribulation, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? (Romans 8:35 (KJV))

o   Nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord. (Romans 8:39 (KJV))

(27) COMFORTER

o   Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me. (Psalm 23:4 (ESV))

o   When I think of your rules from of old, I take comfort, O Lord. (psalm 119:52 (ESV))

o   Let your steadfast love comfort me according to your promise to your servant. (Psalm 119:76 (ESV))

o   You will say in that day: “I will give thanks to you, O Lord, for though you were angry with me, your anger turned away, that you might comfort me. (Isaiah 12;1 (ESV))

o   I have seen his ways, but I will heal him; I will lead him and restore comfort to him and his mourners. (Isaiah 57:8 (ESV))

o   Cry out again, Thus says the Lord of hosts: My cities shall again overflow with prosperity, and the Lord will again comfort Zion and again choose Jerusalem. (Zechariah 1:17 (ESV))

o   So the church throughout all Judea and Galilee and Samaria had peace and was being built up. And walking in the fear of the Lord and in the comfort of the Holy Spirit, it multiplied. (Acts 9:31 (ESV))

o   Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of mercies and God of all comfort. (2 Corinthians 1:3 (ESV))

o   Now may our Lord Jesus Christ himself, and God our Father, who loved us and gave us eternal comfort and good hope through grace. (2 Thessalonians 2:16 (ESV))

(28) FORGIVING

o   `The LORD is slow to anger and abundant in lovingkindness, forgiving iniquity and transgression; but He will by no means clear the guilty, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generations.’ (Numbers 14:18 (NAS))

o   “Pardon, I pray, the iniquity of this people according to the greatness of Your lovingkindness, just as You also have forgiven this people, from Egypt even until now.” (Numbers 14:19 (NAS))

o   `The priest shall also make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt offering before the LORD for his sin which he has committed, and the sin which he has committed will be forgiven him. (Leviticus 19:22 (NAS))

o   O LORD our God, You answered them; You were a forgiving God to them, And yet an avenger of their evil deeds. (Psalm 99:8 (NAS))

o   He touched my mouth with it and said, “Behold, this has touched your lips; and your iniquity is taken away and your sin is forgiven.” (Isaiah 6:7 (NAS))

o   `And forgive us our debts, as we also have forgiven our debtors. (Matthew 6:12 (NAS))

o   “But if you do not forgive others, then your Father will not forgive your transgressions. (Matthew 6:15 (NAS))

o   “Which is easier, to say, `Your sins are forgiven,’ or to say, `Get up, and walk’? (Matthew 9:5 (NAS))

o   “Therefore I say to you, any sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven people, but blasphemy against the Spirit shall not be forgiven. (Matthew 12:31 (NAS))

o   But Jesus was saying, “Father, forgive them; for they do not know what they are doing.” And they cast lots, dividing up His garments among themselves. (Luke 23:34 (NAS))

o   Be kind to one another, tender-hearted, forgiving each other, just as God in Christ also has forgiven you. (Ephesians 4:32 (NAS))

o   When you were dead in your transgressions and the uncircumcision of your flesh, He made you alive together with Him, having forgiven us all our transgressions. (Colossians 2:13 (NAS))

o   Bearing with one another, and forgiving each other, whoever has a complaint against anyone; just as the Lord forgave you, so also should you. (Colossians 3:13 (NAS))

o   If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9 (NAS))

(29) SAVIOUR

o   The God of my rock; in him will I trust: he is my shield, and the horn of my salvation, my high tower, and my refuge, my saviour; thou savest me from violence. (2 Samuel 22:3 (KJV))

o   For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee. (Isaiah 43:3 (KJV))

o   Tell ye, and bring them near; yea, let them take counsel together: who hath declared this from ancient time? who hath told it from that time? have not I the LORD? and there is no God else beside me; a just God and a Saviour; there is none beside me. (Isaiah 45:21 (KJV))

o   For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. (Luke 2:11 (KJV))

o   Him hath God exalted with his right hand to be a Prince and a Saviour, for to give repentance to Israel, and forgiveness of sins. (Acts 5:31 (KJV))

o   Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Saviour, and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope. (1 Timothy 1:1 (KJV))

o   But is now made manifest by the appearing of our Saviour Jesus Christ, who hath abolished death, and hath brought life and immortality to light through the gospel. (2 Timothy 1:10 (KJV))

o   Not purloining, but shewing all good fidelity; that they may adorn the doctrine of God our Saviour in all things. (Titus 2:10 (KJV))

o   But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared. (Titus 3:4 (KJV))

o   To the only wise God our Saviour, be glory and majesty, dominion and power, both now and ever. Amen. (Jude 1:25 (KJV))

(30) MARVELLOUS

o   Remember his marvellous works that he hath done, his wonders, and the judgments of his mouth. (1 Chronicles 16:12 (KJV))

o   Shew thy marvellous lovingkindness, O thou that savest by thy right hand them which put their trust in thee from those that rise up against them. (Psalm 17:7 (KJV))

o   Thus saith the LORD of hosts; If it be marvellous in the eyes of the remnant of this people in these days, should it also be marvellous in mine eyes? saith the LORD of hosts. (Zechariah 8:6 (KJV))

o   Jesus saith unto them, Did ye never read in the scriptures, The stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord’s doing, and it is marvellous in our eyes? (Matthew 21:42 (KJV))

o   But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light. (1 Peter 2:9 (KJV))

o   And I saw another sign in heaven, great and marvellous, seven angels having the seven last plagues; for in them is filled up the wrath of God. (Revelation 15:1 (KJV))

(31) JUST

o   Far be it from you to do such a thing, to put the righteous to death with the wicked, so that the righteous fare as the wicked! Far be that from you! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?” (Genesis 18:25 (ESV))

o   He executes justice for the fatherless and the widow, and loves the sojourner, giving him food and clothing. (Deuteronomy 10:18 (ESV))

o   The Rock, his work is perfect, for all his ways are justice. A God of faithfulness and without iniquity, just and upright is he. (Deuteronomy 32:4 (ESV))

o   But the Lord sits enthroned forever; he has established his throne for justice… (Psalm 9:7 (ESV))

o   He loves righteousness and justice; the earth is full of the steadfast love of the Lord. (Psalm 33:5 (ESV))

o   The Lord works righteousness and justice for all who are oppressed. (Psalm 103:6 (ESV))

o   Hear my voice according to your steadfast love; O Lord, according to your justice give me life. (Psalm 119:149 (ESV))

o   He stores up sound wisdom for the upright; he is a shield to those who walk in integrity, 8 guarding the paths of justice and watching over the way of his saints. (Proverbs 2:7-8 (ESV))

o   Many seek the face of a ruler, but it is from the Lord that a man gets justice. (Proverbs 29:26 (ESV))

o   And I will make justice the line, and righteousness the plumb line; and hail will sweep away the refuge of lies, and waters will overwhelm the shelter.” (Isaiah 28:17 (ESV))

(32) EVERLASTING

o   Abraham planted a tamarisk tree in Beersheba and called there on the name of the Lord, the Everlasting God. (Genesis 21:33 (ESV))

o   The eternal God is your dwelling place, and underneath are the everlasting arms. (Deuteronomy 33:27a (ESV))

o   Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, from everlasting to everlasting! (1 Chronicles 16:36 (ESV))

o   Your throne is established from of old; you are from everlasting. (Psalm 33:2 (ESV))

o   For to us a child is born, to us a son is given; and the government shall be upon his shoulder, and his name shall be called Wonderful Counsellor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. (Isaiah 9:6 (ESV))

o   Trust in the Lord forever, for the Lord God is an everlasting rock. (Isaiah 26:4 (ESV))

o   Have you not known? Have you not heard? The Lord is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary; his understanding is unsearchable. (Isaiah 40:28 (ESV))

o   In overflowing anger for a moment I hid my face from you, but with everlasting love I will have compassion on you,” says the Lord, your Redeemer. (Isaiah 54:8 (ESV))

o   I will give in my house and within my walls a monument and a name better than sons and daughters; I will give them an everlasting name that shall not be cut off. (Isaiah 56:5 (ESV))

o   The sun shall be no more your light by day, nor for brightness shall the moon give you light; but the Lord will be your everlasting light, and your God will be your glory. (Isaiah 60:19 (ESV))

o   But the Lord is the true God; he is the living God and the everlasting King. At his wrath the earth quakes, and the nations cannot endure his indignation. (Jeremiah 10:10 (ESV))

(33) FAITHFUL

o   Know therefore that the LORD your God, He is God, the faithful God, who keeps His covenant and His lovingkindness to a thousandth generation with those who love Him and keep His commandments. (Deuteronomy 7:9 (NAS))

o   Thus says the LORD, the Redeemer of Israel and its Holy One, To the despised One, To the One abhorred by the nation, To the Servant of rulers, “Kings will see and arise, Princes will also bow down, Because of the LORD who is faithful, the Holy One of Israel who has chosen You. (Isaiah 49:7 (NAS))

o   God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord. (1 Corinthians 1:9 (NAS))

o   No temptation has overtaken you but such as is common to man; and God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will provide the way of escape also, so that you will be able to endure it. (1 Corinthians 10:13 (NAS))

o   But as God is faithful, our word to you is not yes and no. (2 Corinthians 1:18 (NAS))

o   But the Lord is faithful, and He will strengthen and protect you from the evil one. (2 Thessalonians 3:3 (NAS))

o   If we are faithless, He remains faithful, for He cannot deny Himself. (2 Timothy 2:13 (NAS))

o   Therefore, those also who suffer according to the will of God shall entrust their souls to a faithful Creator in doing what is right. (1 Peter 4:19 (NAS))

o   If we confess our sins, He is faithful and righteous to forgive us our sins and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9 (NAS))

o   And I saw heaven opened, and behold, a white horse, and He who sat on it is called Faithful and True, and in righteousness He judges and wages war. (Revelation 19:11 (NAS))

(34) ALL-KNOWING

o   The secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our children forever, that we may follow all the words of this law. (Deuteronomy 29:29 (NIV))

o   Who can fathom the Spirit of the Lord, or instruct the Lord as his counsellor? Whom did the Lord consult to enlighten him, and who taught him the right way? Who was it that taught him knowledge, or showed him the path of understanding? (Isaiah 40:13-14 (NIV))

o   But Jesus, knowing their thoughts, said, “Why do you think evil in your hearts? (Matthew 9:4 (ESV))

o   And even the very hairs of your head are all numbered. (Matthew 10:30 (NIV))

o   But, knowing their hypocrisy, he said to them, “Why put me to the test? Bring me a denarius and let me look at it.” (Mark 12:15 (ESV))

o   Nothing in all creation is hidden from God’s sight. Everything is uncovered and laid bare before the eyes of him to whom we must give account. (Hebrews 4:13 (NIV))

(35) HEALER

o   “If you will diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD your God, and do that which is right in his eyes, and give heed to his commandments and keep all his statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon you which I put upon the Egyptians; for I am the LORD, your healer.” (Exodus 15:26 (RSV))

o   “‘See now that I, even I, am He, and there is no god beside me; I kill and I make alive; I wound and I heal; and there is none that can deliver out of My hand.” (Deuteronomy 32:39 (RSV))

o   If My people who are called by My name humble themselves, and pray and seek My face, and turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from Heaven, and will forgive their sin and heal their land. (2 Chronicles 7:14 (RSV))

o   “Return, O faithless sons, I will heal your faithlessness.” “Behold, we come to thee; for thou art the LORD our God.” (Jeremiah 3:22 (RSV))

o   Heal me, O LORD, and I shall be healed; save me, and I shall be saved; for thou art my praise. (Jeremiah 17:14 (RSV))

o   Behold, I will bring to it health and healing, and I will heal them and reveal to them abundance of prosperity and security. (Jeremiah 33:6 (RSV))

o   And He called to him his twelve disciples and gave them authority over unclean spirits, to cast them out, and to heal every disease and every infirmity. (Matthew 10:1 (RSV))

o   Heal the sick in it and say to them, ‘The kingdom of God has come near to you.’ (Luke 10:9 (RSV))

o   How God anointed Jesus of Nazareth with the Holy Spirit and with power; how He went about doing good and healing all that were oppressed by the devil, for God was with Him. (Acts 10:38 (RSV))

(36) LIGHT

o   Happy are the people who know the joyful shout; Lord, they walk in the light of Your presence. (Psalm 89:15 (Holman’s))

o   [His] brilliance is like light; rays are flashing from His hand. This is where His power is hidden. (Habakkuk 3:4 (Holman’s))

o   This, then, is the judgment: the light has come into the world, and people loved darkness rather than the light because their deeds were evil. (John 3:19 (Holman’s))

o   Then Jesus spoke to them again: “I am the light of the world. Anyone who follows Me will never walk in the darkness but will have the light of life.” (John 8:12 (Holman’s))

o   Jesus answered, “The light will be with you only a little longer. Walk while you have the light so that darkness doesn’t overtake you. The one who walks in darkness doesn’t know where he’s going. (John 12:35 (Holman’s))

o   While you have the light, believe in the light so that you may become sons of light.” Jesus said this, then went away and hid from them. (John 12:36 (Holman’s))

o   Now this is the message we have heard from Him and declare to you: God is light, and there is absolutely no darkness in Him. (1 John 1:5 (Holman’s))

o   Yet I am writing you a new command, which is true in Him and in you, because the darkness is passing away and the true light is already shining. (1 John 2:8 (Holman’s))

(37) GUIDE

o   For You are my rock and my fortress; for Your name’s sake You will lead me and guide me. (Psalm 31:3 (NAS))

o   For such is God, Our God forever and ever; He will guide us until death. (Psalm 48:14 (NAS))

o   Let the nations be glad and sing for joy; for You will judge the peoples with uprightness And guide the nations on the earth. Selah. (Psalm 67:4 (NAS))

o   “I will lead the blind by a way they do not know, In paths they do not know I will guide them. I will make darkness into light before them and rugged places into plains. These are the things I will do, And I will not leave them undone.” (Isaiah 42:16 (NAS))

o   They will not hunger or thirst, Nor will the scorching heat or sun strike them down; for He who has compassion on them will lead them And will guide them to springs of water. (Isaiah 49:10 (NAS))

o   To guide our feet into the way of peace. (Luke 1:79b (NAS))

o   But when He, the Spirit of truth, comes, He will guide you into all the truth; for He will not speak on His own initiative, but whatever He hears, He will speak; and He will disclose to you what is to come. (John 16:13 (NAS)

(38) GATHERER

o   And from thence [they journeyed] to Beer: that is the well whereof the LORD said unto Moses, Gather the people together, and I will give them water. (Numbers 21:16 (ESV))

o   That then the LORD thy God will turn thy captivity, and have compassion upon thee, and will return and gather thee from all the peoples, whither the LORD thy God hath scattered thee. (Deuteronomy 30:3 (ESV))

o   If [any of] thine outcasts be in the uttermost parts of heaven, from thence will the LORD thy God gather thee, and from thence will he fetch thee. (Deuteronomy 30:4 (ESV))

o   Now therefore gather the rest of the people together, and encamp against the city, and take it: lest I take the city, and it be called after my name. (2 Samuel 12:28 (ESV))

o   But if ye return unto me, and keep my commandments and do them, though your outcasts were in the uttermost part of the heaven, yet will I gather them from thence, and will bring them unto the place that I have chosen to cause my name to dwell there. (Nehemiah 1:9 (ESV))

(39) WISDOM

o   Tell all the skilled men to whom I have given wisdom in such matters that they are to make garments for Aaron, for his consecration, so he may serve me as priest. (Exodus 28:3 (NIV))

o   Observe them carefully, for this will show your wisdom and understanding to the nations, who will hear about all these decrees and say, “Surely this great nation is a wise and understanding people.” (Deuteronomy 4:6))

o   His wisdom is profound, his power is vast. Who has resisted him and come out unscathed? (Job 9:4 (NIV))

o   To God belong wisdom and power; counsel and understanding are His. (Job 12:13 (NIV))

o   Where then does wisdom come from? Where does understanding dwell? (Job 28:20 (NIV))

o   Surely you desire truth in the inner parts; you teach me wisdom in the inmost place. (Psalm 51:6 (NIV))

o   By wisdom the LORD laid the earth’s foundations, by understanding he set the heavens in place. (Proverbs 3:19 (NIV))

o   The Spirit of the LORD will rest on him – the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding, the Spirit of counsel and of power, the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD (Isaiah 11:2 (NIV))

o   All this also comes from the LORD Almighty, wonderful in counsel and magnificent in wisdom. (Isaiah 28:29 (NIV))

o   He will be the sure foundation for your times, a rich store of salvation and wisdom and knowledge; the fear of the LORD is the key to this treasure. (Isaiah 33:6 (NIV))

(40) WORKER

o   God saw all that He had made, and behold, it was very good. (Genesis 1:31)

o   Where were you when I laid the foundation of the earth? Tell me, if you have understanding. Who determined its measurements—surely you know!   Or who stretched the line upon it?? (Job 38:4-5)

o   The Lord is my shepherd, I shall not want. He makes me lie down in green pastures; He leads me beside still waters.   (Psalm 23:1-2)

o   Let Your work appear to Your servants and Your majesty to their children. (Psalm 90:16 (NASB))

o   They all wait for You To give them their food in due season. (Psalm 104:27 (NASB))

o   Unless the LORD builds the house, they labour in vain who build it; unless the LORD guards the city, the watchman keeps awake in vain. (Psalm 127:1 (NASB))

o   My Father always working, and so am I (John 5:17)

o   No one can come to me unless drawn by the Father who sent me; and I will raise that person up on the last day. It is written in the prophets, “And they shall all be taught by God.” Everyone who has heard and learned from the Father comes to me. (John 6:44-45)

Posted in God.

God – 4

DESCRIPTORS OF GOD’S CHARACTERISTICS – PART 1
(1) INCOMPARABLE

o   There is none holy as the LORD: for there is none beside Thee: neither is there any rock like our God. (1 Samuel 2:2)

o   For who in the Heaven can be compared unto the Lord? Who among the sons of the mighty can be likened unto the Lord? (Psalm 89:6–7 (KJV 1900))

o   I pray also that the eyes of your heart may be enlightened in order that you may know the hope to which He has called you, the riches of His glorious inheritance in the saints, and His incomparably great power for us who believe. That power is like the working of His mighty strength… (Ephesians 1:18-19 NIV)

o   To whom then will ye liken Me, that I should be equal [to him]? saith the Holy One. (Isaiah 40:25 ESV)

o   Who hath directed the spirit of the LORD, or being His counsellor hath taught Him? With whom took He counsel, and who instructed Him, and taught Him in the path of judgment, and taught Him knowledge, and shewed to Him the way of understanding? (Isaiah 40:13-14 ESV)

o   Who is a God like You, removing iniquity and passing over rebellion for the remnant of His inheritance? He does not hold on to His anger forever, because He delights in faithful love. (Micah 7:18 HCSB)

o   There is none like unto Thee, O LORD; Thou art great, and Thy name is great in might. (Jeremiah 10:6 ESV)

(2) MAJESTIC

o   In the greatness of Your majesty you overthrow your adversaries; you send out your fury; it consumes them like stubble. (Exodus 15:7 (ESV))

o   Who is like You, O Lord, among the gods? Who is like You, majestic in holiness, awesome in glorious deeds, doing wonders? (Exodus 15:11 (ESV))

o   There is none like God, O Jeshurun, who rides through the heavens to your help, through the skies in His majesty. (Deuteronomy 33:26 (ESV))

o   Splendour and majesty are before Him; strength and joy are in His place. (1 Chronicles 16:27 (ESV))

o   Yours, O Lord, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, for all that is in the heavens and in the Earth is Yours. Yours is the kingdom, O Lord, and You are exalted as head above all. (1 Chronicles 29:11 (ESV))

o   Will not His majesty terrify you, and the dread of Him fall upon you? (Job 13:11 (ESV))

o   For I was in terror of calamity from God, and I could not have faced His majesty. (Job 31:23 (ESV))

o   After it His voice roars; He thunders with His majestic voice, and He does not restrain the lightnings when His voice is heard. (Job 37:4 (ESV))

o   O Lord, our Lord, how majestic is Your name in all the earth! You have set your glory above the heavens. (Psalm 8:1 (ESV))

o   Glorious are You, more majestic than the mountains of prey. (Psalm 76:4 (ESV))

o   And the Lord will cause His majestic voice to be heard and the descending blow of His arm to be seen, in furious anger and a flame of devouring fire, with a cloudburst and storm and hailstones. (Isaiah 30:30 (ESV))

o   The point of what we are saying is this: We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in Heaven. (Hebrews 8:1 (NIV))

o   We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of His majesty. (2 Peter 1:16 (NIV))

o   For when He received honour and glory from God the Father, such an utterance as this was made to Him by the Majestic Glory, “This is My beloved Son with whom I am well-pleased ” (2 Peter 1:17 (NIV))

o   To the only God our Saviour be glory, majesty, power and authority, through Jesus Christ our Lord, before all ages, now and forevermore! Amen. (Jude 1:25 (NIV))

(3) HOLY

o   For I am the LORD your God: sanctify yourselves therefore, and be ye holy; for I am holy (Leviticus 11:44 (ESV))

o   Speak unto all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say unto them, Ye shall be holy: for I the LORD your God am holy (Leviticus 19:2 (ESV))

o   “Who is able to stand in the presence of the LORD, this holy God?” they cried out. “Where can we send the Ark from here?” (1 Samuel 6:20 (NLT))

o   Then say, “Save us, O God of our salvation, and gather us and deliver us from the nations, to give thanks to Your holy Name, And glory in Your praise.” (1 Chronicles 16:35 (NAS))

o   “O LORD our God, even these materials that we have gathered to build a Temple to honour Your holy Name come from you! It all belongs to you! (1 Chronicles 29:16 (NLT))

o   Sing praises to the Lord, O you His saints, and give thanks to His holy Name (Psalm 30:4 (ESV))

o   Exalt ye the LORD our God, and worship at His holy hill; for the LORD our God is holy (Psalm 99:9 (ESV))

o   Save us, O LORD our God, and gather us from among the nations, to give thanks unto Thy holy Name, and to triumph in Thy praise (Psalm 136:47 (ESV))

o   But the LORD Almighty will be exalted by His justice, and the holy God will show Himself holy by His righteousness (Isaiah 5:16 (NIV))

o   For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy saviour (Isaiah 43:3 (ESV))

(4) AWESOME

o   “Who else among the gods is like You, O LORD? Who is glorious in holiness like You – so awesome in splendour, performing such wonders?” (Exodus 15:11 (NLT))

o   And as Aaron spoke to the people, they looked out toward the desert. Within the guiding cloud, they could see the awesome glory of the LORD (Exodus 16:10 (NLT))

o   “Don’t be afraid,” Moses said, “for God has come in this way to show you His awesome power. From now on, let your fear of Him keep you from sinning!” (Exodus 20:20 (NLT))

o   The Israelites at the foot of the mountain saw an awesome sight. The awesome glory of the LORD on the mountaintop looked like a devouring fire (Exodus 24:17 (NLT))

o   You shall not be in dread of them, for the Lord your God is in your midst, a great and awesome God (Deuteronomy 7:21 (ESV))

o   “If you are not careful to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that you may fear this glorious and awesome Name, the Lord your God (Deuteronomy 28:58 (ESV))

o   And I said, “O Lord God of heaven, the great and awesome God who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love Him and keep His commandments (Nehemiah 1:5 (ESV))

o   Awesome is God from His sanctuary; the God of Israel – He is the one who gives power and strength to His people. Blessed be God! (Psalm 68:35 (ESV))

o   He sent redemption to His people; He has commanded His covenant forever. Holy and awesome is His Name! (Psalm 111:9 (ESV))

o   I prayed to the Lord my God and made confession, saying, “O Lord, the great and awesome God, who keeps covenant and steadfast love with those who love Him and keep His commandments (Daniel 9:4 (ESV))

(5) PROVIDER

o   So Abraham called the name of that place, “The Lord will provide”; as it is said to this day, “On the mount of the Lord it shall be provided.” (Genesis 22:14 (ESV))

o   The LORD provided a deliverer for Israel, and they escaped from the power of Aram. So the Israelites lived in their own homes as they had before. (2 Kings 13:5 (NIV))

o   Who provides food for the raven when its young cry out to God and wander about for lack of food? (Job 38:41 (NIV))

o   He provides food for those who fear Him; He remembers His covenant forever. (Psalm 111:5 (ESV))

o   He provided redemption for his people; he ordained his covenant forever – holy and awesome is his name. (Psalm 111:9 (NIV))

o   Then the LORD God provided a vine and made it grow up over Jonah to give shade for his head to ease his discomfort, and Jonah was very happy about the vine. (Jonah 4:6 (NIV))

o   Yet He has not left Himself without testimony: He has shown kindness by giving you rain from heaven and crops in their seasons; He provides you with plenty of food and fills your hearts with joy. (Acts 14:17 (NIV))

o   As for the rich in this present age, charge them not to be haughty, nor to set their hopes on the uncertainty of riches, but on God, who richly provides us with everything to enjoy. (1 Timothy 6:17 (ESV))

o   The Son is the radiance of God’s glory and the exact representation of his being, sustaining all things by his powerful word. After He had provided purification for sins, He sat down at the right hand of the Majesty in Heaven. (Hebrews 1:3 (NIV))

o   If anyone speaks, he should do it as one speaking the very words of God. If anyone serves, he should do it with the strength God provides, so that in all things God may be praised through Jesus Christ. To Him be the glory and the power for ever and ever. Amen. (1 Peter 4:11 (NIV))

(6) HONOUR

o   So honour the LORD and serve him wholeheartedly. Put away forever the idols your ancestors worshiped when they lived beyond the Euphrates River and in Egypt. Serve the LORD alone. (Joshua 24:14 (NLT))

o   Therefore, the LORD, the God of Israel, says: The terrible things you are doing cannot continue! I had promised that your branch of the tribe of Levi would always be my priests. But I will honour only those who honour me, and I will despise those who despise me. (1 Samuel 2;30 (NLT))

o   So I am planning to build a Temple to honour the name of the LORD my God, just as he instructed my father that I should do. For the LORD told him, ‘Your son, whom I will place on your throne, will build the Temple to honour my name.’ (1 King 5:5 (NLT))

o   Honour and majesty surround him; strength and beauty are in his dwelling. (1 Chronicles 16:27 (NLT))

o   May we shout for joy when we hear of your victory, flying banners to honour our God. (Psalm 20:5 (NLT))

o   Give honour to the LORD, you angels; give honour to the LORD for his glory and strength. (Psalm 29:1 (NLT))

o   I will honour you as long as I live, lifting up my hands to you in prayer. (Psalm 63:4 (NLT))

o   Honour and majesty surround him; strength and beauty are in his sanctuary. (Psalm 96:6 (NLT)

o   Praise the LORD, I tell myself; O LORD my God, how great you are! You are robed with honour and with majesty. (Psalm 104:1 (NLT))

o   I honour and love your commands. I meditate on your principles. (Psalm 119:48 (NLT))

(7) GLORY

o   And as soon as Aaron spoke to the whole congregation of the people of Israel, they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the Lord appeared in the cloud. (Exodus 16:10 (ESV))

o   The glory of the Lord dwelt on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. And on the seventh day He called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. (Exodus 24:16 (ESV))

o   Now the appearance of the glory of the Lord was like a devouring fire on the top of the mountain in the sight of the people of Israel. (Exodus 24:17 (ESV))

o   Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. (Exodus 40:34 (ESV))

o   And Moses and Aaron went into the tent of meeting, and when they came out they blessed the people, and the glory of the Lord appeared to all the people. (Leviticus 9:23 (ESV))

o   But truly, as I live, and as all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord.. (Numbers 14:21 (ESV))

o   Then Moses and Aaron went from the presence of the assembly to the entrance of the tent of meeting and fell on their faces. And the glory of the Lord appeared to them.. (Numbers 20:6 (ESV))

o   And you said, ‘Behold, the Lord our God has shown us His glory and greatness, and we have heard His voice out of the midst of the fire. This day we have seen God speak with man and man still live. (Deuteronomy 5:24 (ESV))

o   Glory in His holy name; let the hearts of those who seek the Lord rejoice! (1 Chronicles 16:10 (ESV))

o   Declare His glory among the nations, His marvellous works among all the peoples! (1 Chronicles 16:24 (ESV))

o   Ascribe to the Lord, O clans of the peoples, ascribe to the Lord glory and strength! (1 Chronicles 16:28 (ESV))

o   Yours, O Lord, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, for all that is in the heavens and in the Earth is yours. Yours is the kingdom, O Lord, and You are exalted as head above all. (1 Chronicles 19:11 (ESV))

o   When all the people of Israel saw the fire come down and the glory of the Lord on the temple, they bowed down with their faces to the ground on the pavement and worshiped and gave thanks to the Lord, saying, “For He is good, for His steadfast love endures forever.” (2 Chronicles 7:3 (ESV))

o   O Lord, our Lord, how majestic is Your name in all the earth! You have set your glory above the heavens. (Psalm 8:1 (ESV))

o   The heavens declare the glory of God, and the sky above proclaims His handiwork. (Psalm 19:1 (ESV))

o   Lift up your heads, O gates! And be lifted up, O ancient doors, that the King of glory may come in. (Psalm 24:7 (ESV))

o   O Lord, I love the habitation of Your house and the place where Your glory dwells. (Psalm 26:8 (ESV))

o   Ascribe to the Lord, O heavenly beings, ascribe to the Lord glory and strength. (Psalm 29:1 (ESV))

o   Be exalted, O God, above the heavens! Let Your glory be over all the Earth! (Psalm 57:5 (ESV))

o   Sing the glory of His name; give to Him glorious praise! (Psalm 66:2 (ESV))

o   Nations will fear the Name of the Lord, and all the kings of the earth will fear Your glory. (Psalm 102:15 (ESV))

o   They shall speak of the glory of Your kingdom and tell of Your power (Psalm 145:11 (ESV))

(8) WORTHY OF WORSHIP

o   But the LORD, who brought you up from the land of Egypt with great power and an outstretched arm, Him you shall fear, Him you shall worship, and to Him you shall offer sacrifice. (2 Kings 17:36 (NKJV))

o   But as for me, I will come into Your house in the multitude of Your mercy; In fear of You I will worship toward Your holy temple. (Psalm 5:7 (NKJV))

o   All nations whom You have made Shall come and worship before You, O Lord, And shall glorify Your name. (Psalm 86:9 (NKJV))

o   Exalt the LORD our God, and worship at His footstool– He is holy. (Psalm 99:5 (NKJV))

o   I will worship toward Your holy temple, and praise Your name For Your lovingkindness and Your truth; for You have magnified Your word above all Your name. (Psalm 138:2))

o   But the hour is coming, and now is, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth; for the Father is seeking such to worship Him. (John 4:23 (NKJV))

o   But this I confess to you, that according to the Way which they call a sect, so I worship the God of my fathers, believing all things which are written in the Law and in the Prophets. (Acts 24:14 (NKJV))

o   And thus the secrets of his heart are revealed; and so, falling down on his face, he will worship God and report that God is truly among you. (1 Corinthians 14:25 (NKJV))

o   The four living creatures, each having six wings, were full of eyes around and within. And they do not rest day or night, saying: “Holy, holy, holy, R33 Lord God Almighty, Who was and is and is to come!” 9 Whenever the living creatures give glory and honour and thanks to Him who sits on the throne, who lives forever and ever, 10 the twenty-four elders fall down before Him who sits on the throne and worship Him who lives forever and ever, and cast their crowns before the throne, saying: 11 “You are worthy, O Lord, R34 To receive glory and honour and power; For You created all things, And by Your will they exist R35 and were created.” (Revelation 4:8-11 (NKJV))

o   Who shall not fear You, O Lord, and glorify Your name? For You alone are holy. For all nations shall come and worship before You, For Your judgments have been manifested.” (Revelation 15:4 (NKJV))

(9) PRESENCE

o   They heard the sound of the LORD God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God among the trees of the garden. (Genesis 3:8 (NAS))

o   “You shall set the bread of the Presence on the table before Me at all times. (Exodus 25:30 (NAS))

o   And He said, “My presence shall go with you, and I will give you rest.” (Exodus 33:14 (NAS))

o   And fire came out from the presence of the LORD and consumed them, and they died before the LORD. (Leviticus 10:2 (NAS))

o   “Do this: take censers for yourselves, Korah and all your company, 7 and put fire in them, and lay incense upon them in the presence of the LORD tomorrow; and the man whom the LORD chooses shall be the one who is holy. (Numbers 16:6-7 (NAS))

o   while your servants, everyone who is armed for war, will cross over in the presence of the LORD to battle, just as my lord says.” (Numbers 32:27 (NAS))

o   “You shall eat in the presence of the LORD your God, at the place where He chooses to establish His name, the tithe of your grain, your new wine, your oil, and the firstborn of your herd and your flock, so that you may learn to fear the LORD your God always. (Deuteronomy 14:13 (NAS))

o   “The mountains quaked at the presence of the LORD, This Sinai, at the presence of the LORD, the God of Israel. (Judges 5:5 (NAS))

o   “Now then, do not let my blood fall to the ground away from the presence of the LORD; for the king of Israel has come out to search for a single flea, just as one hunts a partridge in the mountains.” (1 Samuel 26:20 (NAS))

o   Now there was a famine in the days of David for three years, year after year; and David sought the presence of the LORD. And the LORD said, “It is for Saul and his bloody house, because he put the Gibeonites to death.” (2 Samuel 21:1 (NAS))

o   Then the LORD said to Satan, “Behold, all that he has is in your power, only do not put forth your hand on him.” So Satan departed from the presence of the LORD. (Job 1:12 (NAS))

o   You will make known to me the path of life; In Your presence is fullness of joy; In Your right hand there are pleasures forever. (Psalm 16:11 (NAS))

o   As for me, You uphold me in my integrity, and You set me in Your presence forever. (Psalm 41:12 (NAS))

o   For by their own sword they did not possess the land, and their own arm did not save them, But Your right hand and Your arm and the light of Your presence, For You favoured them. (Psalm 44:3 (NAS))

o   You, even You, are to be feared; And who may stand in Your presence when once You are angry? (Psalm 76:7 (NAS))

o   You have placed our iniquities before You, Our secret sins in the light of Your presence. (Psalm 90:8 (NAS))

o   Surely the righteous will give thanks to Your name; The upright will dwell in Your presence. (Psalm 140:13 (NAS))

(10) PURPOSE

o   But for this purpose I have raised you up, to show you my power, so that my name may be proclaimed in all the earth. (Exodus 9:16 (ESV))

o   I know that you can do all things, and that no purpose of yours can be thwarted. (Job 42:2 (ESV))

o   I cry out to God Most High, to God who fulfils his purpose for me. (Psalm 57:2 (ESV))

o   Many are the plans in the mind of a man, but it is the purpose of the Lord that will stand. (Proverbs 19:21 (ESV))

o   This is the purpose that is purposed concerning the whole earth, and this is the hand that is stretched out over all the nations. (Isaiah 14:26 ESV))

o   So shall my word be that goes out from my mouth; it shall not return to me empty, but it shall accomplish that which I purpose, and shall succeed in the thing for which I sent it. (Isaiah 55:11 (ESV))

o   “I must preach the good news of the kingdom of God to the other towns as well; for I was sent for this purpose.” (Luke 4:43 (ESV))

o   “Now is my soul troubled. And what shall I say? ‘Father, save me from this hour’? But for this purpose I have come to this hour.” (John 12:27 (ESV))

(11) PROTECTOR

o   The Lord bless you and protect you.   (Numbers 6:24 (Holman))

o   For the LORD your God moves about in your camp to protect you and to deliver your enemies to you. Your camp must be holy, so that he will not see among you anything indecent and turn away from you. (Deuteronomy 23:14 (NIV))

o   May the LORD answer you when you are in distress; may the name of the God of Jacob protect you. (Psalm 20:1 (NIV))

o   You are my hiding place; You protect me from trouble. You surround me with joyful shouts of deliverance. Selah (Psalm 32:7 (Holman))

o   Father of orphans and protector of widows is God in his holy habitation. (Psalm 68:5 (NRSV))

o   I am in pain and distress; may your salvation, O God, protect me. (Psalm 69:29 (NIV))

o   The Lord will protect your coming and going both now and forever. (Psalm 121:8 (Holman))

o   So that He may guard the paths of justice and protect the way of His loyal followers. (Proverbs 2:8 (Holman))

o   I will remain in the world no longer, but they are still in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them by the power of your name – the name you gave me – so that they may be one as we are one. (John 17:11 (NIV))

o   Now to Him who is able to protect you from stumbling and to make you stand in the presence of His glory, blameless and with great joy (Jude 1:24 (Holman))

(12) GOODNESS

o   And he said, “I will make all my goodness pass before you, and will proclaim before you the name, “The Lord’; and I will be gracious to whom I will be gracious, and will show mercy on whom I will show mercy. (Exodus 33:19 (NRSV))

o   On the eighth day he sent the people away; and they blessed the king, and went to their tents, joyful and in good spirits because of all the goodness that the Lord had shown to his servant David and to his people Israel. (1 King 8:66 (NRSV))

o   Now rise up, O Lord God, and go to your resting place, you and the ark of your might. Let your priests, O Lord God, be clothed with salvation, and let your faithful rejoice in your goodness. (2 Chronicles 6:41 (NRSV))

o   Do not remember the sins of my youth or my transgressions; according to your steadfast love remember me, for your goodness’ sake, O Lord! (Psalm 25:7 (NRSV))

o   Happy are those whom you choose and bring near to live in your courts. We shall be satisfied with the goodness of your house, your holy temple. (Psalm 65:4 (NRSV))

o   Afterward the Israelites shall return and seek the Lord their God, and David their king; they shall come in awe to the Lord and to his goodness in the latter days. (Hosea 3:5 (NRSV))

o   But when the goodness and loving kindness of God our Saviour appeared, (Titus 3:4 (NRSV))

o   And have tasted the goodness of the word of God and the powers of the age to come. (Hebrews 6:5 (NRSV))

(13) CREATOR

o   But Abram said to the king of Sodom, “I have raised my hand to the LORD, God Most High, Creator of heaven and earth, and have taken an oath. (Genesis 14:22 (NIV))

o   Is this the way you repay the LORD, O foolish and unwise people? Is he not your Father, your Creator, who made you and formed you? (Deuteronomy 32:6 (NIV))

o   Do you not know? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He will not grow tired or weary, and his understanding no one can fathom. (Isaiah 40:28 (NIV))

o   I am the LORD, your Holy One, Israel’s Creator, your King. (Isaiah 43:15 (NIV))

o   “Haven’t you read,” he replied, “that at the beginning the Creator ‘made them male and female,’ (Matthew 19:4 (NIV))

o   Do not lie to each other, since you have taken off your old self with its practices and have put on the new self, which is being renewed in knowledge in the image of its Creator. (Colossians 3:10 (NIV))

(14) AUTHORITY

o   For He was teaching them as one having authority, and not as their scribes. (Matthew 7:29 (NAS))

o   “But so that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive sins”–then He said to the paralytic, “Get up, pick up your bed and go home.” (Matthew 9:6 (NAS))

o   And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. (Matthew 28:18 (NAS))

o   “But I will warn you whom to fear: fear the One who, after He has killed, has authority to cast into hell; yes, I tell you, fear Him! (Luke 12:5 (NAS))

o   “No one has taken it away from Me, but I lay it down on My own initiative. I have authority to lay it down, and I have authority to take it up again. This commandment I received from My Father.” (John 10:18 (NAS))

o   Jesus spoke these things; and lifting up His eyes to heaven, He said, “Father, the hour has come; glorify Your Son, that the Son may glorify You, even as You gave Him authority over all flesh, that to all whom You have given Him, He may give eternal life. (John 17:1-2 (NAS))

o   Jesus answered, “You would have no authority over Me, unless it had been given you from above; for this reason he who delivered Me to you has the greater sin.” (John 19:11 (NAS))

o   He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or epochs which the Father has fixed by His own authority. (Acts 1:7 (NAS))

o   Every person is to be in subjection to the governing authorities. For there is no authority except from God, and those which exist are established by God. (Romans 13:1 (NAS))

o   For you know what commandments we gave you by the authority of the Lord Jesus. (1 Thessalonians 4:2 (NAS))

o   To the only God our Saviour, through Jesus Christ our Lord, be glory, majesty, dominion and authority, before all time and now and forever. Amen. (Jude 1:25 (NAS))

(15) JEALOUS

o   You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the LORD your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the fathers to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me (Exodus 20:5 (NIV))

o   Do not worship any other god, for the LORD, whose name is Jealous, is a jealous God. (Exodus 34:14 (NIV))

o   For the LORD your God is a consuming fire, a jealous God. (Deuteronomy 34:14 (NIV))

o   Therefore prophesy concerning the land of Israel and say to the mountains and hills, to the ravines and valleys: ‘This is what the Sovereign LORD says: I speak in my jealous wrath because you have suffered the scorn of the nations’. (Ezekiel 36:6 (NIV))

o   Then the LORD will be jealous for his land and take pity on his people. (Joel 2:18 (NIV))

o   The LORD is a jealous and avenging God; the LORD takes vengeance and is filled with wrath. The LORD takes vengeance on his foes and maintains his wrath against his enemies. (Nahum 1:2 (NIV))

o   I am jealous for you with a godly jealousy. I promised you to one husband, to Christ, so that I might present you as a pure virgin to him. (2 Corinthians 11:2 (NIV))

(16) POWER

o   The LORD said to Moses, “When you return to Egypt, see that you perform before Pharaoh all the wonders I have given you the power to do. But I will harden his heart so that he will not let the people go”. (Exodus 4:21 (NIV))

o   But I have raised you up for this very purpose, that I might show you my power and that my name might be proclaimed in all the earth. (Exodus 9:16 (NIV))

o   “Your right hand, O LORD, was majestic in power. Your right hand, O LORD, shattered the enemy”. (Exodus 15:6 (NIV))

o   As he approached Lehi, the Philistines came toward him (Samson) shouting. The Spirit of the LORD came upon him in power. (Judges 15:14 (NIV))

o   The Spirit of the LORD will come upon you in power, and you will prophesy with them; and you will be changed into a different person. (1 Samuel 10:6 (NIV))

o   The power of the LORD came upon Elijah and, tucking his cloak into his belt, he ran ahead of Ahab all the way to Jezreel. (1 Kings 18:46 (NIV))

o   Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the majesty and the splendour, for everything in heaven and earth is yours. Yours, O LORD, is the kingdom; you are exalted as head over all. (1 Chronicles 29:11 (NIV))

o   His wisdom is profound, his power is vast. Who has resisted him and come out unscathed? (Job 9:4 (NIV))

o   See, the Lord, the LORD Almighty, will lop off the boughs with great power. The lofty trees will be felled, the tall ones will be brought low. (Isaiah 10:33 (NIV))

o   But God made the earth by his power; he founded the world by his wisdom and stretched out the heavens by his understanding. (Jeremiah 10:12 (NIV))

o   So he said to me, “This is the word of the LORD to Zerubbabel: ‘Not by might nor by power, but by my Spirit,’ says the LORD Almighty”. (Zechariah 2:6 (NIV))

o   Jesus replied, “You are in error because you do not know the Scriptures or the power of God”. (Matthew 22:29 (NIV))

o   At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory. (Matthew 24:30 (NIV))

o   The angel answered, “The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God. (Luke 1:35 (NIV))

o   All the people were amazed and said to each other, “What is this teaching? With authority and power he gives orders to evil spirits and they come out!” (Luke 4:36 (NIV))

o   I will remain in the world no longer, but they are still in the world, and I am coming to you. Holy Father, protect them by the power of your name – the name you gave me – so that they may be one as we are one. (John 17:11 (NIV))

o   I am not ashamed of the gospel, because it is the power of God for the salvation of everyone who believes: first for the Jew, then for the Gentile. (Romans 1:6 (NIV))

(17) TRUTH

o   Then the Lord passed in front of him and proclaimed: Yahweh — Yahweh is a compassionate and gracious God, slow to anger and rich in faithful love and truth. (Exodus 34:6 (Holman))

o   Guide me in Your truth and teach me, for You are the God of my salvation; I wait for You all day long. (Psalm 25:5 (Holman))

o   For Your faithful love is before my eyes, and I live by Your truth. (Psalm 26:3 (Holman))

o   Into Your hand I entrust my spirit; You redeem me, Lord, God of truth. (Psalm 31:5 (Holman))

o   Righteousness and justice are the foundation of Your throne; faithful love and truth go before You. (Psalm 89:14 (Holman))

o   The works of His hands are truth and justice; all His instructions are trustworthy. (Psalm 111:7 (Holman))

o   By Myself I have sworn; Truth has gone from My mouth, a word that will not be revoked: Every knee will bow to Me, every tongue will swear allegiance. (Isaiah 45:23 (Holman))

o   Whoever is blessed in the land will be blessed by the God of truth, and whoever swears in the land will swear by the God of truth. For the former troubles will be forgotten and hidden from My sight. (Isaiah 65:16 (Holman))

o   The Word became flesh and took up residence among us. We observed His glory, the glory as the One and Only Son from the Father, full of grace and truth. (John 1:14 (Holman))

o   But an hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and truth. (John 4:23 (Holman))

o   Jesus told him, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me. (John 14:6 (Holman))

o   When the Counsellor comes, the One I will send to you from the Father — the Spirit of truth who proceeds from the Father — He will testify about Me. (John 15:6 (Holman))

(18) INTEGRITY-PROMISE

o   Now the Lord has fulfilled his promise that he made. For I have risen in the place of David my father, and sit on the throne of Israel, as the Lord promised, and I have built the house for the name of the Lord, the God of Israel. (1 King 8:20 (ESV))

o   Blessed be the Lord who has given rest to his people Israel, according to all that he promised. Not one word has failed of all his good promise, which he spoke by Moses his servant. (1King 8:56 (ESV))

o   Let your steadfast love come to me, O Lord, your salvation according to your promise. (Psalm 119:41 (ESV))

o   Your promise is well tried, and your servant loves it. (Psalm 119:140 (ESV))

o   For thus says the Lord: When seventy years are completed for Babylon, I will visit you, and I will fulfil to you my promise and bring you back to this place. (Jeremiah 29:10 (ESV))

o   Behold, the days are coming, declares the Lord, when I will fulfil the promise I made to the house of Israel and the house of Judah. (Jeremiah 33:14 (ESV))

o   Being therefore exalted at the right hand of God, and having received from the Father the promise of the Holy Spirit, he has poured out this that you yourselves are seeing and hearing. (Acts 2:33 (ESV))

o   For the promise is for you and for your children and for all who are far off, everyone whom the Lord our God calls to himself. (Acts 2:39 (ESV))

o   And if you are Christ’s, then you are Abraham’s offspring, heirs according to promise. (Galatians 3:29 (ESV))

o   And this is the promise that he made to us – eternal life. (1 John 2:25 (ESV))

(19) STRENGTH

o   Now may the Lord’s strength be displayed, just as you have declared. (Numbers 14:17 (NIV))

o   Because he loved your forefathers and chose their descendants after them, he brought you out of Egypt by his Presence and his great strength. (Deuteronomy 4:7 (NIV))

o   Look to the LORD and his strength; seek his face always. (1 Chronicles 16:11 (NIV))

o   If it is a matter of strength, he is mighty! And if it is a matter of justice, who will summon him? (Job 9:19 (NIV))

o   To him belong strength and victory; both deceived and deceiver are his. (Job 12:16 (NIV))

o   But you, O LORD, be not far off; O my Strength, come quickly to help me. (Psalm 22:19 (NIV))

o   The LORD is the strength of his people, a fortress of salvation for his anointed one. (Psalm 28:8 (NIV))

o   Ascribe to the LORD, O mighty ones, ascribe to the LORD glory and strength. (Psalm 29:1 (NIV))

o   The LORD reigns, he is robed in majesty; the LORD is robed in majesty and is armed with strength. The world is firmly established; it cannot be moved. (Psalm 93:1 (NIV))

o   The LORD is my strength and my song; he has become my salvation. (Psalm 118:14 (NIV))

(20) FEARFUL

o   Now Joseph said to them on the third day, “Do this and live, for I fear God” (Genesis 42:18 (NAS))

o   Furthermore, you shall select out of all the people able men who fear God, men of truth, those who hate dishonest gain; and you shall place these over them as leaders of thousands, of hundreds, of fifties and of tens. (Exodus 18:21 (NAS))

o   Moses said to the people, “Do not be afraid; for God has come in order to test you, and in order that the fear of Him may remain with you, so that you may not sin.” (Exodus 20:20 (NAS))

o   “Remember the day you stood before the LORD your God at Horeb, when the LORD said to me, `Assemble the people to Me, that I may let them hear My words so they may learn to fear Me all the days they live on the earth, and that they may teach their children.’” (Deuteronomy 4:10 (NAS))

o   Now, Israel, what does the LORD your God require from you, but to fear the LORD your God, to walk in all His ways and love Him, and to serve the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul. (Deuteronomy 10:12 (NAS))

o   You who fear the LORD, praise Him; All you descendants of Jacob, glorify Him, And stand in awe of Him, all you descendants of Israel. (Psalm 22:23 (NAS))

o   From You comes my praise in the great assembly; I shall pay my vows before those who fear Him. (Psalm 22:25 (NAS))

o   Behold, the eye of the LORD is on those who fear Him, on those who hope for His lovingkindness. (Psalm 33:18 NAS))

o   O fear the LORD, you His saints; For to those who fear Him there is no want. (Psalm 34:9 (NAS))

o   Come, you children, listen to me; I will teach you the fear of the LORD. (Psalm 34:11 (NAS))

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